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Pre Arrival:  Charts | Docs | Restrictions
Arrival:  Approach | Pilots | Anchor
Communications:  Pratique | VTS/Radar
Pollution:  Pollution | Waste
Facilities:  Medical | Fuel
Local Info:  Time | Holidays
Shore:  Customs
Misc:  Authority
Report:  Report
General Information for Turkey
Geo-political:
Capital City: Ankara.
Nationality: (noun) Turk, (adjective) Turkish.
Population: 76,805,524.
Communications:
International Direct Dial Code: 90.
Number of Internal Airports: 90.
Major Languages Spoken: Turkish (official), Kurdish, other minority languages.
Economy:
Currency: 1 Turkey New Lira (TRY) of 100 New Kurus.
Main Industries: Textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber and paper.
Environment:
Territorial Sea: 12 n.m.
Other Maritime Claims: Exclusive Economic Zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR.
Coastline Extent: 7,200 km.
Climate: Temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior.
Natural Resources: Coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulphur), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (), clay, arable land and hydropower.
Natural Hazards: Severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van.
Terrain: High central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges.
Average Temperatures: 
Month High Low
January 10° C 3° C
June 25° C 16° C
September 24° C 16° C
CHARTS:  Notices to Mariners, Navigational Warnings and Navtex broadcasts issued by the Turkish Naval Forces, Office of Navigation, Hydrography and Oceanography, and available at:
DOCUMENTS:  As per regulations, all pre-arrival forms and certificates will be delivered to the Harbour Master’s Office for inspection.
   Ballast Water Reporting Form
   Certificate of Entry
   Certificate of Insurance or Other Financial Security in Respect of Civil Liability for Bunker Oil Pollution
   Certificate of Insurance or Other Financial Security in Respect of Civil Liability for Oil Pollution
   Classification Certificate
   Continuous Synopsis Record
   Crew List
   International Ship Security Certificate
   International Tonnage Certificate
   Maritime Declaration of Health
   Ports of Call List (last 10 ports)
   Registry Certificate
   Ship’s Particulars
   Stores List
   Waste Declaration.
The following documents should be prepared for Customs clearance on arrival:
5 Cargo Manifests
3 Cargo Manifests (in transit – if any)
2 Crew Effects Declarations
8 Crew Lists
   Crew Passports
   International Tonnage Certificate (copy)
   Last Port Clearance
   Maritime Declaration of Health
   Medical Certificate
3 Nil Lists
4 Notices of Readiness
3 Ports of Call Lists (last 10 ports)
   Ship Sanitation Control (Exemption) Certificate
   Ship’s Register
2 Stores Lists.
RESTRICTIONS: 
    Turkish Straits: 
  1. All vessels carrying dangerous goods, all vessels under tow, and all other vessels with 300 g.t. or more entering the Turkish Straits must have valid P&I cover. Validity of P&I Insurance shall be ascertained and declared by local Agent on SP1 report (see `` VTS/Radar'').
  2. In-transit/stopover period for vessels in the Turkish Straits is 168 hours (7 days).
  3. The maximum speed for vessels in the Turkish Straits is 10 knots over the ground. This speed may be exceeded if steerage cannot be maintained; VTS centre must be advised accordingly.
  4. Vessels shall not be permitted to get closer than 100 m. to any bridge piers/legs in the Turkish Strait. No ships are allowed to overtake another ship while passing under bridges.
  5. Passenger and container vessels with LOA more than 300 m. and all vessels with LOA more than 400 m. must apply to the Harbour authorities 30 days before their passage in order to obtain the necessary passage permission. For ships transiting Istanbul or Canakkale straits only, application for passage is made only to the Istanbul or Canakkale Harbour Master as applicable. For vessels transiting both Istanbul and Canakkale straits, application shall be made to the Istanbul Harbour Master.
  6. All tankers and vessels that are carrying dangerous cargo with LOA 200 m. or more, all tows, all vessels subject to additional passage conditions, and all vessels with LOA 250 m. and more (except tankers and ships carrying dangerous goods) and/or deep-draft vessels shall perform their transit through the Istanbul Straits during daytime only. It is highly recommended by the Turkish authorities that all such vessels should perform their transit with the assistance of a pilot and with escort of tug(s) to be determined by the VTS centre.
  7. Whether full or empty, all tankers with LOA 200 m. or more, vessels carrying IMDG Code 1 with LOA 200 m. or more, and deep-draft vessels shall perform their transit of the Canakkale Straits during daytime only.
  8. All tankers with LOA 250 m. or more, and vessels carrying dangerous cargo (except Ro-Ro and container vessels) are highly recommended to perform their passage of the Canakkale Straits with the assistance of pilots and with the escort of tugs as determined by the VTS centre. These vessels shall perform their transit of the Canakkale Straits during daytime only.
  9. LPG vessels (including LPG vessels not carrying LPG) with LOA 150 m. or more shall perform their passage of the Turkish Straits during daytime only and with the assistance of pilot and with tugs.
  10. LPG vessels (including LPG vessels not carrying LPG) with LOA 150-200 m. shall perform their Turkish Straits passage with the assistance of tug with not less than 60 tons BP, while LPG vessels with LOA more than 200 m. shall be escorted by tugs with at least 90 tons BP. Tug capacities are subject to change by authorities according to weather and sea conditions.
  11. Contracted and scheduled LNG carriers must make their passage of the Turkish Straits during daylight and under pilot assistance.
  12. Contracted and scheduled LNG carriers must make their passage of the Turkish Straits escorted by tugs with minimum 60 tons BP each and in total no less than 150 tons.
  13. Contracted and scheduled LNG carriers must not enter the Canakkale Straits when visibility is equal or less than 0.5 n.m. Currents must not be more than 4 knots at the entrance to Canakkale Straits. If currents exceed 4 knots, transit permission will need to be given by TSVTS.
  14. If there is a collision, grounding, fire or contact with the shore then vessel must employ salvage services from the Turkish Coastal Safety and Salvage Administration (CSSA); vessel is not permitted to resolve the issue without CSSA assistance.
  15. Vessels that are carrying a military vessel as cargo will be considered as a military vessel in the area.
    Bridges: 
  1. Bosphorus Bridge (Bogazici Koprusu), known officially as the 15 July Martyrs Bridge and unofficially as the First Bridge, is one of the three suspension bridges spanning the Istanbul Straits. Situated in position 41° 02.75′ N, 029° 02.06′ E, the bridge extends between Ortakoy and Beylerbeyi. Height above CD on both shore sides is 58.5 m., with height above CD in the middle 64.0 m.
  2. Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (Fatih Sultan Mehmet Koprusu), also known as the Second Bosphorus Bridge, is situated in position 41° 05.5′ N, 029° 03.7′ E. It carries the Otoyol 2 highway, and has height above CD on both shore sides is 58.5 m., with height above CD in the middle 64.0 m.
  3. Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (Yavuz Sultan Selim Koprusu), or Third Bosphorus Bridge, is a road and rail bridge near the Black Sea entrance to the Istanbul Straits. It is situated in position 41° 12.17′ N, 029° 06.72′ E.
  4. A transmission line with a vertical clearance of 70 m. is situated in position 41° 10.4′ N, 029° 04.7′ E. Masters of vessels with a similar airdraft intending to pass beneath this transmission line must contact the Istanbul Harbour Master for permission to pass.
APPROACHES:  Turkish Straits:  The Turkish Straits are a series of internationally significant waterways in northwestern Turkey that connect the Aegean and Mediterranean seas to the Black Sea. They consist of the Dardanelles (Canakkale Straits – Canakkale Bogazi), the Sea of Mamara (Marmara Denizi), and the Bosphorus (Istanbul Straits – Istabul Bogazi), all part of the sovereign sea territory of Turkey and subject to the regime of internal waters; the ``Turkish Straits'' or the ``Straits'' is defined as the area within the boundaries of the Istanbul Straits and Canakkale Straits, and includes the Sea of Marmara.
Canakkale Straits:  A deep channel approximately 32 n.m. long, linking the Aegean Sea with the Sea of Marmara. It extends from the line joining the Mehmetcik Cape to Kumkale Lighthouse near Gelibolu in the north. The width of the Canakkale Straits varies throughout its length with a minimum of 1 km. near Nara Burnu.
The passage through the Canakkale Straits presents a particular hazard. An IMO-approved Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS) has been implemented in the Canakkale Straits and the Sea of Marmara.
Regulation of ship traffic through the Canakkale Straits is carried out by the Canakkale Turkish Straits Vessel Traffic Service (TSVTS) under the authority of the Turkish Coastal Safety and Salvage Administration (CSSA); traffic management measures implemented by the Turkish CSSA are designed to ensure the safe passage of large vessels and those carrying hazardous cargoes.
When traffic in the Canakkale Straits is temporarily suspended or directed, vessels wait in the designated anchorage positions southwest of Bozcaada in the Aegean Sea or in the Gelibolu Sarkoy area in the Sea of Marmara.
Istanbul Straits:  A narrow, natural strait linking the Sea of Marmara with the Black Sea. It has a length of approximately 18 n.m.
The waters of the Istanbul Straits are traversed by numerous ferries daily, as well as recreational and fishing boats ranging from dinghies to yachts. Between its northern limits at Rumeli Feneri and Anadolu Feneri and its southern ones at Ahirkapi Feneri and Kadikoy Inciburnu Feneri, there are numerous dangerous points for large-scale maritime traffic that require sharp turns and management of visual obstructions.
The stretch between Kandilli Point (41° 04.23′ N, 029° 03.36′ E) and Asiyan requires a 45° course alteration in a location where the currents can reach 7 to 8 knots. To the south, at Yenikoy (41° 07.37′ N, 029° 05.0′ E), the necessary course alteration is 80° . Compounding these difficult changes in course, the rear and forward sight lines at Kandilli and Yenikoy are also completely blocked prior to and during the course alteration, making it impossible for ships approaching from the opposite direction to see around these bends. The risks posed are further multiplied by the heavy ferry traffic across the strait.
PILOTAGE:  Turkish Straits:  Compulsory through the Istanbul Straits and Canakkale Straits for:
a) all foreign flag vessels calling at any port in Sea of Marmara after transiting the Canakkale or Istanbul straits
b) all vessels visiting:
i. Canakkale Straits
ii. Gulf of Izmit
iii. port of Galata and inner port of Istanbul
iv. Selviburnu and Cubuklu oil installations (Bosphorus)
v. anchorages at Dolmabahce.
Vessels not subject to compulsory pilotage are strongly advised by the Turkish authorities to make use of a pilot due to strong currents and traffic density. All vessels passing through the Straits with/without a pilot, should have a local Agent nominated for payment of taxes and fees.
Request for pilots should be sent as part of Sailing Plan 1 (SP1) and Sailing Plan 2 (SP2). Also see VTS/Radar.
Bosphorus North Entrance:  Rumeli Kavak pilot station, call sign ``Kavak Pilot'', located in position 41° 11.0′ N, 029° 04.0′ E. Kavak Pilot listens/works on VHF Channels 16, 11 and 71.
Pilot boarding takes place in position 41° 15.1′ N, 029° 07.92′ E, and disembarkation in position 41° 14.44′ N, 029° 09.49′ E.
Kavak Pilot T: +90 (212) 228 1138. F: +90 (212) 228 1305.
Bosphorus South Entrance:  Istanbul pilot station, call sign ``Istanbul Pilot'', located in position 41° 01.0′ N, 029° 01.0′ E. Istanbul Pilot listens/works on VHF Channels 16, 13 and 71.
Pilot boarding takes place in position 40° 55.22′ N, 028° 58.72′ E, and disembarkation in position 40° 56.46′ N, 028° 54.67′ E.
Istanbul Pilot T: +90 (216) 346 7320. F: +90 (216) 346 6678.
Canakkale North Entrance:  Gelibolu pilot station, call sign ``Gelibolu Pilot'', located in position 40° 24.0′ N, 026° 41.0′ E. Gelibolu Pilot listens/works on VHF Channels 16, 11 and 71.
Pilot boarding takes place in position 40° 25.7′ N, 026° 44.15′ E, and disembarkation in position 40° 25.05′ N, 026° 44.1′ E.
Gelibolu Pilot T: +90 (286) 566 1612. F: +90 (286) 566 1611.
Canakkale South Entrance:  Mehmetcik pilot station, call sign ``Canakkale Pilot'', located in position 40° 03.0′ N, 026° 11.0′ E. Mehmetcik Pilot listens/works on VHF Channels 16, 13 and 71.
Pilot boarding takes place in position 40° 00.39′ N, 026° 08.12′ E, and disembarkation in position 40° 01.49′ N, 026° 08.17′ E.
ANCHORAGES:  Turkish Straits:  The anchorage areas within the Turkish Straits Reporting System are contained within lines joining the following co-ordinates:
Bosphorus North Entrance: 
    Vessels Carrying Dangerous Cargo: 
  1. 41° 15.4′ N, 028° 57.45′ E
  2. 41° 17.5′ N, 028° 57.45′ E
  3. 41° 17.5′ N, 029° 00.0′ E
  4. 41° 14.9′ N, 029° 00.0′ E.
    Passenger and Dry Cargo Vessels: 
  1. 41° 14.9′ N, 029° 00.0′ E
  2. 41° 17.5′ N, 029° 00.0′ E
  3. 41° 17.5′ N, 029° 02.37′ E
  4. 41° 15.9′ N, 029° 05.0′ E
  5. 41° 15.0′ N, 029° 05.0′ E.
Bosphorus South Entrance: 
    Passenger and Dry Cargo Vessels (Long Term Anchorage): 
  1. 41° 00.15′ N, 028° 56.5′ E
  2. 40° 58.15′ N, 028° 56.5′ E
  3. 40° 56.82′ N, 028° 53.5′ E
  4. 40° 58.92′ N, 028° 53.5′ E.
    Vessels Carrying Dangerous Cargo: 
  1. 40° 58.92′ N, 028° 53.5′ E
  2. 40° 56.82′ N, 028° 53.5′ E
  3. 40° 56.12′ N, 028° 51.95′ E
  4. 40° 55.88′ N, 028° 50.0′ E
  5. 40° 57.48′ N, 028° 50.0′ E.
    Quarantine Anchorage: 
  1. 40° 57.54′ N, 028° 48.7′ E
  2. 40° 56.1′ N, 028° 48.7′ E
  3. 40° 56.4′ N, 028° 47.4′ E
  4. 40° 58.23′ N, 028° 47.4′ E.
Kucukcekmece: 
    Quarantine Anchorage: 
  1. 40° 58.32′ N, 028° 43.5′ E
  2. 40° 56.9′ N, 028° 43.5′ E
  3. 40° 56.4′ N, 028° 47.4′ E
  4. 40° 58.23′ N, 028° 47.4′ E.
Kartal: 
    Quarantine Anchorage: 
  1. 40° 53.2′ N, 028° 11.1′ E
  2. 40° 52.55′ N, 028° 09.55′ E
  3. 40° 51.0′ N, 028° 10.3′ E
  4. 40° 51.4′ N, 028° 12.0′ E
  5. 40° 52.6′ N, 028° 13.4′ E.
Dardanelles North Entrance: 
    Vessels Carrying Dangerous Cargo: 
  1. 40° 37.55′ N, 027° 10.0′ E
  2. 40° 32.65′ N, 027° 00.0′ E
  3. 40° 30.0′ N, 026° 53.0′ E
  4. 40° 31.3′ N, 026° 52.4′ E.
    Passenger and Dry Cargo Vessels: 
  1. 40° 33.42′ N, 026° 59.8′ E
  2. 40° 36.45′ N, 027° 10.0′ E
  3. 40° 32.65′ N, 026° 27.0′ E
  4. 40° 33.42′ N, 026° 59.8′ E.
Dardanelles Inside (Karanlik Liman): 
    Passenger and Dry Cargo Vessels: 
  1. 40° 00.9′ N, 026° 15.1′ E
  2. 40° 01.7′ N, 026° 17.4′ E
  3. 40° 03.07′ N, 026° 18.95′ E
  4. 40° 02.55′ N, 026° 19.8′ E
  5. 40° 01.4′ N, 026° 18.75′ E
  6. 40° 00.3′ N, 026° 15.2′ E.
Dardanelles South Entrance: 
    Vessels Carrying Dangerous Cargo: 
  1. 39° 49.17′ N, 026° 00.0′ E
  2. 39° 46.0′ N, 025° 57.4′ E
  3. 39° 46.9′ N, 025° 55.3′ E
  4. 39° 50.45′ N, 025° 53.4′ E
  5. 39° 54.15′ N, 025° 57.8′ E
  6. 39° 52.75′ N, 026° 00.0′ E
  7. 39° 50.4′ N, 025° 57.9′ E.
    Passenger and Dry Cargo Vessels: 
  1. 39° 48.1′ N, 026° 04.97′ E
  2. 39° 44.0′ N, 026° 01.9′ E
  3. 39° 46.0′ N, 025° 57.4′ E
  4. 39° 49.17′ N, 026° 00.0′ E.
PRATIQUE:  Vessels transiting the Turkish Straits and not calling at a Turkish port in the Sea of Marmara will be boarded by a Sanitary Officer at the entrance to the Canakkale Straits northbound or Istanbul Straits southbound. All vessels bound for a Turkish port, including in the Sea of Marmara, will be boarded by a Sanitary Officer on arrival at the port. Nobody may join or leave the ship before this inspection is completed. The ship must produce the following documents:
   International Load Line Certificate
   Maritime Declaration of Health
   Registry Certificate
   Ship Safety Construction Certificate
   Ship Safety Equipment Certificate
   Ship Safety Radio Certificate
   Ship Sanitation Control (Exemption) Certificate.
VTS/RADAR:  Turkish Straits Reporting System (TUBRAP):  The Turkish Government have implemented the Turkish Traffic Reporting System (TUBRAP) for the Bosphorus and surrounding waters.
Definitions:  Turkish Straits Reporting System (TUBRAP) area consists of the Straits of Marmara Region in the maritime area, comprising the Sea of Marmara, the Strait of Istanbul, the Strait of Canakkale and the coastlines surrounding this area.
  1. ``The Straits'' is the area within the boundaries of the Strait of Istanbul and the Strait of Canakkale.
  2. ``Northern Entrance to the Strait of Istanbul'' is the line joining Anadolu Lighthouse to Turkeli Lighthouse.
  3. ``Southern Entrance to the Strait of Istanbul'' is the line joining Ahirkapi Lighthouse to Kadikoy Inciburnu Breakwater Lighthouse.
  4. ``Northern Entrance to the Strait of Canakkale'' means the longitude passing through Zincirbozan Lighthouse.
  5. ``Southern Entrance to the Strait of Canakkale'' means the line joining the Mehmetcik Cape Lighthouse to the Kumkale Lighthouse.
  6. ``Vessel'' means any vehicle able to navigate at sea except craft under oars.
  7. ``Large Vessel'' means a vessel of LOA 150 m. or more.
  8. ``Deep Draft Vessel'' means a vessel with a max. draft of 10.0 m. or more.
  9. ``Straits Navigation Speed'' is the restricted normal max. speed of 10 knots over the ground for vessels proceeding in the Straits.
  10. ``Safe Air Draft'' in the Strait of Istanbul due to bridges is 58.0 m.
  11. ``Administration'' means TC Basbakanlik Denizcilik Mustesarligi (Undersecretariat for Maritime Affairs).
  12. ``Daytime'' means the period between sunrise and sunset.
  13. ``Night-time'' means the period between sunset and sunrise.
Compliant Vessels:  The following are defined as active participant vessels, and shall comply with TUBRAP:
  1. all vessels carrying dangerous cargo
  2. all vessels LOA 20 m. and over.
    The following are defined as passive participant vessels: 
  1. vessels less than LOA 20 m.
  2. local traffic vessels navigating within the VTS area.
Passive participant vessels do not need to report; however, they shall maintain a continuous listening watch on the relevant sector VHF Channel and follow instructions accordingly.
All communication shall be in English. Turkish vessels and vessels under pilotage may communicate in Turkish.
All vessels should maintain a continuous listening watch on the Sector VHF Channel whether navigating or at anchor.
VHF Channel 6 will be used in case of emergencies.
Meteorological information and general announcements will be broadcast on VHF Channel 67 as required.
Istanbul VTSC:  Istanbul Bogazi Gemi Trafik Hizmetleri Merkezi Istinye Cad. Eski Tersane ici, 34460 Istinye/Istanbul. T: +90 (212) 323 4800 PBX. F: +90 (212) 323 4806, 323 4807, 323 4808. sp1istvts@kegm.gov.tr
Canakkale VTSC:  Canakkale Bogazi Gemi Trafik Hizmetleri Merkezi Akbas Mevkii, 17900 Eceabat/Canakkale. T: +90 (286) 213 4800 PBX. F: +90 (286) 213 1240, 213 1241, 213 3077. sp1ckalevts@kegm.gov.tr
    General Rules: 
  1. Vessels navigating in the Turkish Straits shall exercise full diligence and regard for the requirements of the Traffic Separation Scheme as per Col. Reg. 10.
  2. Vessels entering the area to transit through the Turkish Straits or entering a port in the area will comply with the reporting system (TUBRAP) established by the Administration.
  3. Vessels navigating in the Turkish Straits shall continuously monitor the broadcasts of Vessel Traffic Services Centre (VTSC) and follow the Centre's instructions.
  4. A vessel may not pass through the Straits under tow from another vessel. Passage through the Straits is possible when the towage is carried out by tugs or vessels suitably equipped for the operation.
  5. The normal speed for vessels in the Straits is 10 knots over the ground. This speed may be exceeded if steerageway speed cannot be reached, by informing VTSC and taking care to avoid collisions and creating waves harmful to the surroundings.
  6. In consideration of the limited manoeuvrability of vessels having deep draft during the passage through the Straits, sufficient space to manoeuvre and navigate safely will be provided.
  7. Passage of vessels with LOA exceeding 200 m. or draft greater than 15.0 m., due to the adverse morphological, oceanographic and meteorological characteristics and physical constraints of the Straits is advised to take place during daytime.
  8. Passage through the Straits of a ``Vessel Not Under Command'' or ``a Vessel Restricted in her Ability to Manoeuvre'', as defined in Col Reg. 72 (Rules 3f and 3g), depends on the special permission of the Administration.
  9. Procedure for Passage: Master will ensure that no unauthorised personnel shall enter the navigating bridge, chart room and bridge wings while navigating in the Straits, and that nothing will hinder the ability of the crew to command the vessel and keep watch around the vessel. Authorised personnel will remain on duty in the engine control room, whether or not the controls of the engines are in the main controlled manually. Automatic pilot systems will not be used. The emergency steering gear will also be kept ready for immediate use with personnel on duty.
  10. Overtaking Ship/Overtaken Call Point Report: Vessels navigating in the Straits shall not overtake vessels proceeding before them except if necessary. Vessels passing through the Strait shall maintain a distance of at least 8 cables (1,600 yards (1,482.5 m.)) between each other. If for any reason a vessel is going to reduce speed while navigating in the Straits, she shall first inform the vessels proceeding behind her. A vessel navigating under her own power at low speed will keep to the most starboard side of her own traffic separation lane and will permit faster vessels to overtake her. When a vessel needs to overtake a slower vessel, she shall first contact VTSC, and if the situation is clear, shall inform the vessel to be overtaken. The overtaking manoeuvre shall, if possible, take place on one course. Overtaking will not take place between Yenikoy and Kanlica in the Istanbul Straits, and between Cape Nara and Cape Kilitbahir in the Canakkale Straits.
  11. Accidents and Breakdowns While Underway: Vessels whose direct transit passage through the Straits has been interrupted due to accidents, breakdowns or compulsory anchoring shall immediately inform VTSC and request advice and instructions. After measures are taken by the relevant Port Authority with regard to the safety of the vessel and the area, the vessel shall take a pilot and carry out the action required for the completion of the passage.
  12. Vessels Leaving a Port in the Straits: Before getting underway from ports, piers or anchorage positions in the Straits, vessels will inform VTSC and receive any necessary information concerning the traffic flow.
  13. Vessels which have to leave the Traffic Separation Scheme to berth, moor to buoy, drop anchor, turn back or due to breakdowns and other exceptional circumstances, shall inform the VTSC and any other vessels which may be in the vicinity.
  14. One-way and Two-way Maritime Traffic in the Straits: Vessels navigating in the Straits exercise full diligence and regard for the requirements of the Traffic Separation Schemes. To proceed within the Traffic Separation Scheme is obligatory. Vessel shall proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane, and shall keep as near as possible to the traffic separation line (Col. Reg. 10-b1. and 10-b11). A vessel not able to comply with the requirements of the Traffic Separation Scheme shall inform VTSC well in advance. In such circumstances, the Administration may temporarily suspend the particular Traffic Separation Scheme, or section of it, and inform the vessels sailing in the area and advise them of vessels which cannot comply with the Traffic Separation Scheme. The Administration may temporarily suspend two-way traffic and regulate one-way traffic to maintain a safe distance between vessels.
  15. Proceeding under sail, swimming or fishing in the Traffic Separation Scheme are prohibited. Sport activities such as sailing, rowing and swimming require permission.
  16. Maritime traffic in the Straits can be suspended in cases of submarine construction works and drillings, scientific research, sport activities, work carried out by the fire brigade, aid and rescue operations, prevention and eradication of maritime pollution, pursuing criminals and similar extraordinary cases, for purposes of safety of navigation, in a manner that would affect the flow of traffic negligibly. In such cases, maritime traffic shall be suspended or reopened through Notices to Mariners, radio navigation announcements and also through VTSC mentioning day and hour.
Traffic Separation Schemes (TSS):  The boundaries of the Traffic Separation Schemes which shall apply in the Straits and Marmara Region are delimited.
    In the north, by the north border of the area joining: 
  1. 41° 16.0′ N, 028° 55.0′ E
  2. 41° 21.0′ N, 028° 55.0′ E
  3. 41° 21.0′ N, 029° 16.0′ E
  4. 41° 14.0′ N, 029° 16.0′ E.
    In the south, by the SW border of the area joining: 
  1. 40° 05.0′ N, 026° 11.0′ E
  2. 40° 02.0′ N, 025° 55.0′ E
  3. 39° 50.0′ N, 025° 53.0′ E
  4. 39° 44.0′ N, 025° 55.0′ E
  5. 39° 44.0′ N, 026° 09.0′ E.
Traffic Separation Schemes which are prepared in accordance with the guidelines in the Ship's Routeing publication of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) are shown on the Planning Chart No. 9001.
Planning Factors:  The owner or manager of a large vessel intending to pass through the Straits shall provide information to the Administration on the vessel and its cargo at the planning stage of the passage. This information is required to ensure the safety of passengers and is also used:
  1. to suspend temporarily two-way maritime traffic and regulate one-way traffic when vessels will not be able to comply with requirements of the Traffic Separation Schemes
  2. to prepare all relevant measures and relocate the Emergency at Sea and Onshore services for the likelihood of accident, fire or breakdown which may occur when proceeding through the Istanbul and Canakkale straits.
In order to prevent the accumulation of vessels at the entrance of the Strait due to the passage of large vessels, the Administration shall, in the light of the information provided and taking into consideration the morphological and physical structure of the Straits, the vessel's dimensions and manoeuvring capability, the safety of life, property and environment and maritime traffic conditions, set up the timing of passages. Large vessels, as well as vessels proceeding through the Straits and sailing in the area, will be duly informed of the timing of passages established in such a manner.
To navigate through the Straits and Marmara Region, nuclear-powered vessels or vessels carrying nuclear cargo or waste, must obtain permission in accordance with relevant regulations from the Under-Secretariat for Maritime Affairs at the planning stage of the passage.
Vessels carrying dangerous or noxious waste must obtain permission from the Ministry for Environment at the planning stage of the passage.
Vessels carrying dangerous cargo, and nuclear-powered or nuclear cargo carrying vessels as well as carrying nuclear, dangerous or noxious waste, whose passage requires special permission, must comply with the pertinent International Maritime Organisation (IMO) regulations and shall transport their cargo according to these regulations.
Such procedure, foreseen mainly for vessels with a high risk of danger, is intended to verify whether all necessary formalities required by the provisions of relevant international conventions for the vessel itself and its cargo are accomplished. Such vessels will exhibit international code Flag `B' during daytime, and during night-time an all-round red light.
All vessels, except for military vessels, passing through the Istanbul Straits and Canakkale Straits, shall be seaworthy in accordance with international rules and the legislation of the state whose flag they fly, and shall establish the technical conformity of their vessel with the following conditions and make an entry to this effect in the log book.
  1. Primary and secondary machinery units shall be operational as usual and be ready for vessel manoeuvres at any time.
  2. Emergency generators shall be readily operational at all times.
  3. Primary and secondary steering gear, gyro-compass and radar shall be fully operational.
  4. Navigational bridge telegraph, revolutions per minutes (RPM), helm and propeller pitch indicators shall be operational and illuminated so as to be readily visible to the pilot.
  5. Navigation lights and vessel's whistle shall be operational, and all other Navigating Bridge equipment shall be complete and in good working order.
  6. All communication systems, particularly those between the navigating bridge and fore, aft, helm/steering wheel and engine control room, and all alarm systems shall be operational.
  7. VHF radiotelephone equipment shall be fully operational and tuned to the frequencies to be used during the passage.
  8. An Aldis lamp and at least a pair of binoculars shall be kept ready for use day and night on the navigation bridge.
  9. Windlass, capstans and mooring winches shall be ready for use, and both anchors will be prepared at all times for letting go with crew standing by.
  10. There shall be an emergency fire wire fore and aft on vessels carrying dangerous cargo. A towing hawser 1.0 m. – 2.0 m. above the water, line throwing apparatus and heaving lines shall be available at the fore and aft ends of vessels other than those carrying dangerous cargo.
  11. A vessel shall not be trimmed by the stern so as to affect the ability to manoeuvre and steer, and no vessel shall enter into the Straits having a trim by the head. As far as possible, vessels shall be trimmed so that the propeller will be totally below water level, and in cases of necessity, a blade of the propeller shall not exceed 5% of the propeller's diameter above the water level.
  12. The vessel will be trimmed and loaded such that the fore part of the vessel and the sea beyond shall be easily visible from the navigation bridge.
  13. Each vessel shall have on board a copy of the Maritime Traffic Regulations for the Turkish Straits, an up-to-date version of the navigation charts for the Straits area and relevant nautical publications.
  14. All crew employed on vessels shall be in accordance with the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watch Keeping for Seafarers (STCW 78-95). Masters of vessels which are not in conformity with the above-mentioned conditions shall notify the VTSC and shall act according to the instructions of the Administration.
Passage Plans:  Sailing Plan No. 1 (SP1): Masters, owners or Agents of vessels carrying dangerous cargo, or which are 300 g.t. or more at least 24 hours before entering the Turkish Straits shall forward SP1 to the relevant VTSC.
Masters, owners or Agents of vessels of LOA 200–300 m. or with draft more than 15.0 m. should submit SP1 at least 48 hours before entering the Turkish Straits.
It shall contain the following information:
a) vessel's name, call sign, flag, IMO No., MMSI No.
b) date and time (UTC)
c) reporting position (Lat./Long.)
f) continuous manoeuvring speed (in knots including decimals)
g) port of departure
h) arrival date and time to the entrance of the Istanbul or Canakkale straits (Turkey)
I) port of destination
j) request pilot (Yes/No) Istanbul Straits, Marmara Sea, Canakkale Straits
o) draft fore and aft, max. airdraft (at the entrance of the Strait)
p) cargo (type and quantity), description of dangerous, noxious and pollutant goods (UN no./name/class/quantity) (IMDG,IGC,IBC,GC, INF) 1
q) defects/damage/deficiencies/other limitating reasons
t) Agent/representative/fax/name - surname of Master
u) ship type, LOA/beam (m.), g.t./n.t., double or single hull tankers/construction year of vessel
w) number of crew and passengers
x) P&I insurance info. (P&I club name/policy No./validity), bunkers on board (F/O, D/O, L/O), last PSC date.
1 Detailed information relating to vessel's cargo may be requested as needed.
Owners, operators or Agents of vessels that are LOA 300 m. or more, vessels that are propelled by nuclear power and vessels carrying nuclear cargo or nuclear waste shall provide information regarding their characteristics and cargo to the Administration during the planning stage of the voyage provided that is not less than 72 hours. They shall submit the documents issued by the flag state in order to prove that vessel is compliant with IMO standards and regulations arranged by other related international agreements and cargo is carried appropriately. The Administration, based upon vessel's information, shall inform the relevant vessel's owner, Agent, operator or Master of the necessary conditions for the safe passage through Turkish Straits by considering all specifications of the vessels including the dimensions and manoeuvring capabilities, the morphological and physical structure of the Turkish Straits, the condition of the season, safety of navigation, life, property and environment and situation of maritime traffic. Those vessels mentioned which possess the necessary conditions for passage must submit SP1 at least 72 hours in advance.
Vessels carrying dangerous cargo and/or vessels 300 g.t. and above, about to depart from ports in the Sea of Marmara, shall submit sailing plan SP1 to the relevant VTSC at least 6 hours before their departure. All TUBRAP reports should be sent to the VTSC timely and accurately.
SP1 should be sent to the addresses of Istanbul and Canakkale VTSC below:
Sailing Plan No. 2 (SP2):  Except for warships, state-owned vessels not used for commercial purposes, and local traffic vessels that have submitted a SP1 and Masters of vessels LOA 20 m. or more shall submit SP2 to the relevant VTS via VHF 2 hours or 20 n.m. (whichever comes first) before entry into the Istanbul or Canakkale straits.
After having submitted the SP2, vessels shall act by taking into account information provided by the relevant VTS and shall record in the ship's log that they have submitted SP2 and all information received regarding strait traffic.
The SP2 shall be submitted to the relevant VTSC.
VTS Name North Entrance VHF South Entrance VHF
Istanbul Sector Turkeli Ch 11 Sector Marmara Ch 10
Sector Kadikoy Ch 14
Canakkale Sector Gelibolu Ch 13 Sector Kumkale Ch 11
a) vessel's name/call sign/flag/IMO No./MMSI No.
f) max. manoeuvring speed
g) port of departure
h) ETA at entrance of the Strait
I) port of destination
j) request pilot (Yes/No), Istanbul Straits, Sea of Marmara, Canakkale Straits
p) dangerous cargo (if on board)
q) defects/damage/deficiencies/other limitating reasons
t) Agent/representative (if not sending SP1
x) whether ready for the passage of Strait.
Position Report:  Vessels of LOA 20 m. or more entering Istanbul and Canakkale straits when at a distance of 5.0 n.m. from the entrance of the Straits, shall submit a Position Report to VTSC by VHF, advising vessel's name and position.
Call Point Report:  Active participant vessels should submit a Call Point Report via VHF when entering, exiting and changing sectors through Istanbul and/or Canakkale straits and at the start of each sector. Vessels not transiting the Straits but passing through Black Sea and Aegean Sea VTS areas should the report should be sent to the relevant VTSC at the entrance and exit of each sector.
Marmara Report (MARRAP):  Active participant vessels which pass through TSVTS area and navigating between Marmara ports shall submit MARRAP to both exit and entrance sector VTSCs when entering each VTS area.
Vessels departing a port in Marmara and intending to pass through the Strait, shall submit a MARRAP to the relevant VTSC, by VHF, before entering the VTS area.
a) vessel's name
d) position
g) port of departure
I) port of destination
p) whether dangerous cargo is on board.
All vessels navigating within the TSS through the Sea of Marmara should report immediately to the relevant VTSC any emergencies, deviations from the TSS and expected delays in ETA exceeding 2 hours.
Vessels Slowing Down:  Immediate notice should be advised to the relevant VTSC when a vessel has to slow down within the Straits. VTSC can provide information, recommendations and instructions by evaluating the traffic situation.
Vessels Anchoring and Leaving Anchorage:  Anchored vessels should report to the relevant VTSC stating anchorage position and time, maintain a continuous listening watch on the relevant sector VHF Channel whilst at anchor, and inform the VTSC one hour prior to heaving anchor. Once anchor is heaved home, vessels to notify time of heaving, arrival port and ETA at the entrance to the Straits to the relevant VTSC and obtain traffic information.
Vessels Berthing/Unberthing:  Vessels should notify the time of berthing to the relevant VTSC whilst alongside within any port in the Turkish Straits. A continuous listening watch to the relevant VTSC Sector Channel is not obligatory. Vessel to report their time leaving berth should report their time of departure, arrival port and ETA at the entrance to the Straits to the relevant VTSC and obtain traffic information.
Istanbul Vessel Traffic Service:  VTS sector VHF Channels are as follows:
Sector Working Channel Call Sign
Turkeli VHF Channel 11 Sector Turkeli  
Kandilli VHF Channel 12 Sector Kandilli  
Kadikoy VHF Channel 13 Sector Kadikoy  
Marmara VHF Channel 14 Sector Marmara  
    The northern limits of the Istanbul VTS are the lines connecting: 
  1. 41° 10.5′ N, 029° 35.0′ E
  2. 41° 32.5′ N, 029° 35.0′ E
  3. 41° 32.5′ N, 028° 45.0′ E
  4. 41° 19.0′ N, 028° 45.0′ E.
    The southern limits of the Istanbul VTS are the lines connecting: 
  1. 40° 52.5′ N, 029° 13.8′ E
  2. 40° 48.5′ N, 029° 09.0′ E
  3. 40° 39.9′ N, 029° 09.0′ E
  4. 40° 41.0′ N, 028° 10.0′ E
  5. 40° 51.6′ N, 028° 10.0′ E
  6. 40° 55.1′ N, 028° 43.4′ E
  7. 40° 58.2′ N, 028° 43.4′ E.
Sector Turkeli:  The northern limit of this sector is the northern limit of the Istanbul VTS. The southern limit of this sector is the line connecting Anadolukavagi at (41° 10.7′ N, 029° 05.19′ E) and Dikilikaya Feneri Light (41° 10.97′ N, 029° 04.73′ E).
Sector Kandilli:  The northern limit sector is the southern end of Turkeli and the southern limit of Bogazici Bridge.
Sector Kadikoy:  The northern limit of this sector is the southern limit of Sector Kandilli. The southern limit of this sector is the line connecting:
  1. 40° 52.5′ N, 029° 13.8′ E
  2. 40° 48.5′ N, 029° 09.0′ E
  3. 40° 50.3′ N, 028° 52.0′ E
  4. 40° 55.1′ N, 028° 43.4′ E
  5. 40° 58.2′ N, 028° 43.4′ E.
Sector Marmara:  The northern and eastern limits of this sector is the line connecting:
  1. 40° 55.1′ N, 028° 43.4′ E
  2. 40° 50.3′ N, 029° 52.0′ E
  3. 40° 48.5′ N, 029° 09.0′ E
  4. 40° 39.9′ N, 028° 09.0′ E.
Western limit of this sector is the line connecting:
  1. 40° 41.0′ N, 028° 10.0′ E
  2. 40° 51.6′ N, 029° 10.0′ E.
Canakkale Straits VTS:  The sectors of Canakkale VTS and designated VHF working channels are in the following order from north to south:
Sector Working Channel Call Sign
Gelibolu VHF Channel 11 Sector Gelibolu  
Nara VHF Channel 12 Sector Nara  
Kumkale VHF Channel 13 Sector Kumkale  
The northern limits of the Canakkale VTS is a line connecting:
  1. 40° 42.3′ N, 027° 18.5′ E (Hoskoy Br.)
  2. 40° 48.0′ N, 027° 38.0′ E
  3. 40° 51.6′ N, 028° 10.0′ E
  4. 40° 41.0′ N, 028° 10.0′ E
  5. 40° 41.7′ N, 027° 38.5′ E
  6. 40° 39.0′ N, 027° 29.4′ E (Kayirsiz ada)
  7. 40° 28.6′ N, 027° 17.0′ E (Karaburun)
The southern limits of the Canakkale VTS is the line connecting the following positions and/or following the shoreline.
  1. 39° 44.0′ N, 026° 09.2′ E (Hoskoy Br.)
  2. 39° 44.0′ N, 025° 55.0′ E
  3. 39° 52.6′ N, 025° 47.0′ E
  4. 40° 06.0′ N, 025° 47.0′ E
  5. 40° 09.0′ N, 026° 00.9′ E
  6. 40° 09.0′ N, 026° 14.2′ E.
Sector Gelibolu:  The northern limit of this sector is the northern limit of Canakkale VTS. The southern limit of this sector is the line joining:
  1. 40° 21.56′ N, 026° 37.65′ E
  2. 40° 20.15′ N, 025° 39.75′ E.
Sector Nara:  The northern limit of the sector is the southern limit of sector Gelibolu. the southern limit of this sector is the line joining:
  1. 40° 06.8′ N, 026° 20.2′ E
  2. 40° 05.7′ N, 026° 21.75′ E.
Sector Kumkale:  The northern limit of this sector is the southern limit of sector Nara. The southern limit of this sector is the southern limit of the Canakkale VTS.
VHF:  Emergency Assistance and SAR VHF Channel 6. Coast Guard VHF Channel 8.
Pilot Station (Istanbul and Canakkale) VHF Channel 71, Port Pilot (Istanbul) VHF Channel 74.
Dangerous Cargo and Pollution:  No refuse, landfill, bilge water, domestic and industrial waste, ecologically harmful or unsanitary material, oil and other pollutants may be dumped or discharged into the sea in the Straits and Marmara Region (MARPOL 73/78, Annex-I).
Vessels in the Straits and Marmara Region must take every measure not to create air pollution.
The trans-boundary movement of hazardous wastes and other wastes shall be carried out according to the Basle Convention on the Control of Trans-Boundary Waters and their Disposal, and the transportation of harmful substances will be in accordance with the relevant international conventions.
Also see Anchorages
POLLUTION:  Pollution response is under the responsibility of the Undersecretariat for Maritime Affairs. Spill notification point is MSRCC Ankara. T: +90 (312) 232 4783. F: +90 (312) 232 0823. trmrcc@denizcilik.gov.tr or Turkish Coast Guard. T: +90 (312) 425 3337 (emergency). F: +90 (312) 417 2845. sgk@tsk.mil.tr
WASTE DISPOSAL:  No refuse such as garbage, ashes, polluted oil and the like may be thrown or pumped overboard, nor any scraping, cleaning of tanks and/or bilges shall be effected inside port limits.
MEDICAL:  The use or possession of some common prescription and over-the-counter medicines is controlled in Turkey. If you’re travelling with prescription medication you should carry a medical certificate confirming that the medicine has been prescribed for a medical condition. For more information on controlled medicines and the relevant documentation required, contact the nearest Turkish Embassy of Consulate.
FUEL:  As per Turkish regulations for fuel changeover, the vessel is required to use LSGO (0.1% by mass) in Turkish ports and anchorages, and if sailing between Turkish ports on coastal voyages; this is similar to EU directive for EU ports.
Chamber of Shipping Circular 647/2011:  As will be understood in the related articles of The Regulation for Reducing Sulfur Ratio in Certain Types of Fuel amended by The Regulation for Amending the Regulation for Reducing Sulfur Ratio in Certain Types of Fuel (not reproduced), the obligation to use marine fuels with sulphur content not more than 0.1% by mass after January 1 2012 shall apply for ``internal water crafts'' and ``berthed ships''. In the regulations, ``internal water'' covers ``natural and artificial lakes, dam lakes, fisheries and rivers and ``internal water craft'' means all boats used for transporting passengers and cargo in internal waters and fishing boats''. The term ``berthed ships'' is defined as ``ships safely moored or anchored within the boundaries of a port during loading, discharging or accommodation activities or during periods of time past without any cargo operations. Consequently, every kind of boat and fishing boats operating in internal waters and all boats moored or anchored within port boundaries shall have to use bunkers with a maximum sulphur content of 0.1% after 1 January 2012. In this context, the regulation stipulates that “ships must complete their bunker replacement operations within the shortest time possible after arrival at a port and as late as possible after departure from a port''.
As will be understood from the regulation, the stipulations in the regulation shall apply at ``maritime domains or in defined pollution control areas''. Also, as will be understood from the regulation, bunkers used by warships and ships used for military purposes are excluded from the scope of the regulation. Ships arriving at Turkish ports and ships anchored at anchorages shall be subject to the rule of using bunkers with a maximum sulphur content of 0.1% by mass, excluding paragraph 2 of Article 7 of the regulation, during loading, discharging or accommodation activities or during periods of time they are safely berthed or anchored without any cargo operations. In this context, the obligation of berthed ships to use bunkers with a maximum sulphur content of 0.1% by mass shall not apply if the ship in question is or should be berthed for less than two hours according to the published tariff; however, ships passing Turkish Straits without calling to Turkish ports shall not be subject to the rule of using bunkers with sulphur content not exceeding 0.1% by mass, as long as they proceed without calling to any Turkish port.
Under the Regulation, all passenger boats sailing on regular voyages under the maritime line authorisation of the Shipping Administration shall be required to use marine fuels with sulphur content not exceeding 1.5% by mass in ``maritime domains or in defined pollution control areas'' after 1 January 2012. The regulation separately defines ``regular voyages'' and ``passenger ships'', and a passenger ship making regular voyages under the maritime line authorisation of the Administration shall change to the said bunkers before entering marine domains or in the defined pollution control areas and use the said bunkers while sailing in the said areas.
The regulations defined above relates to marine fuels which cover all marine fuels without any exception, including fuels used in the main engines, auxiliary engines, boilers or other machines.
TIME:  GMT plus 3 hours.
LOCAL HOLIDAYS:  1 January (New Year's Day); 23 April (Commemoration of Ataturk and Children's Holiday); 19 May (Youth and Sports Day); Seker Bayrami (3.5 days, changeable, after Ramadan feast); Kurban Bayrami; Festival of Sacrifice (4.5 days changeable); 30 August (Victory Day); 28 October (noon) and 29 October (Independence Day); 31 December.
SHORE LEAVE:  Generally crime levels are low, but street robbery and pick-pocketing are common in the major tourist areas of Istanbul. Smoking is prohibited on public transport and in all indoor workplaces and public places.
Smoking is restricted in some outdoor areas where cultural, artistic, sports or entertainment activities are held.
Turkey has strict laws against the use, possession or trafficking of illegal drugs. If you are convicted of any of these offences, you can expect to receive a heavy fine or a prison sentence of 4 to 24 years.
The possession, sale and export of antiquities is against the law and carries a prison sentence of 5 to 12 years as well as a substantial fine.
Dress modestly if you’re visiting a mosque or a religious shrine to avoid offence. Don’t take photographs near military or official installations. Ask for permission before photographing people.
It is an offence to insult the Turkish nation or the national flag, or to deface or tear up currency. If you’re convicted of any of these offences you could face a prison sentence of between 6 months and 3 years.
Most towns and cities have stray dogs. Local authorities take action to control and manage numbers but packs congregate in parks and wastelands and can be aggressive. Take care, remain calm, and avoid approaching stray dogs. If you’re bitten, seek medical advice as rabies and other animal borne diseases are present in Turkey.
REPATRIATION:  The Electronic Visa (e-Visa) Application System was launched on 17 April 2013 by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Turkey. This system allows visitors travelling to Turkey to easily obtain their e-Visas online. Please note that e-Visa is only valid when the purpose of travel is tourism or commerce. For other purposes, such as work and study, visas are given by Turkish Embassies or Consulates.
You can get an e-Visa online before you travel through the official Republic of Turkey e-Visa website ( www.evisa.gov.tr ). An e-visa costs USD20 and you can pay using a credit or debit card. You can apply up to 3 months in advance of your travel date. Turkish visit visas issued on arrival are valid for multiple stays up to a maximum of 90 days in a 180 day period. Full details including visa requirements available at:
IDENTIFICATION CARDS:  It is illegal not to carry some form of photographic ID in Turkey. Make sure you carry your passport and a printed copy of your e-visa or your residence permit with you at all times.
AUTHORITY:  TC Ulastirma ve Altyapi Bakanligi, Deniz Ticareti Genel Mudurlugu, Hakki Turaylic Caddesi No. 5, Emek Cankaya, Ankara, Turkey. Tel: +90 (312) 203 1000. udhb@hs01.kep.tr http://www.udhb.gov.tr Contact: Cemalettin Sevli, General Manager. cemalettin.sevli@udhb.gov.tr http://www.denizticareti.gov.tr